The Energy Transparency Index methodology is based on the universal statistical method of multidimensional weighted average, used to assess complex objects, processes, and phenomena. The Index dimensions include specific transparency indicators, their sets (categories, subcategories, and energy markets), and transparency aspects (criteria).
Indicators and Categories
An indicator is a specific way of measuring the transparency of a certain object (e.g., energy company, public authority), process (e.g., pricing, regulation, trade, etc.), or phenomenon (e.g., market, competition, etc.). A set of indicators forms the lowest level of the Index decomposition. The Index studies analyzed 100+ indicators with indispensable and sufficient transparency features (contents of information, its format, frequency of updating, etc.) defined in European legislation and/or best global practices of information disclosure.
The Energy Transparency Index studies focus on two energy markets: natural gas and electricity, as well as cross-sector issues.
Grouping the indicators into categories allows stakeholders to obtain information regarding the transparency and accountability in various parts of the energy sector throughout its value chains. By analyzing the requirements and practices of information disclosure, the indicators were grouped into eight categories:
- Defines the transparency of annual and monthly energy statistics.
- Natural monopolies
- Defines the transparency of transmission and distribution system operators.
- Defines the transparency of rules, competition, prices and pricing in the energy markets.
- Reliability and security
- Defines the transparency of stocks and reserves, rules and reports on the security of supply.
- Defines the transparency of energy consumption metering, customer service standards, information for consumers on prices and tariffs, subsidies, preferences and other aid, and energy efficiency programs.
- Defines the transparency of corporate financial statements and auditor reports, management reports, payments to the government, information regarding final beneficiaries.
- Defines the transparency of implementing policy documents on energy and sustainable development, energy efficiency, environmental protection, combating climate change, and renewables.
- Public authorities
- Defines the transparency of public spending, as well as designing, adopting, and implementing policy and regulatory decisions.
For the convenience of assessment and analysis, indicators in each category were grouped into subcategories and groups.
The transparency criterion is an aspect of assessing transparency of an object, process, or phenomenon. Each indicator was evaluated by six transparency criteria:
- The existence of information in open sources.
- A measure of free access to information.
- Availability of information for the most recent reporting period or the moment of assessment.
- Compliance with the requirements regarding the regularity of updating and storing the information.
- Convenience and simplicity of using disclosed data and information.
- Availability of exhaustive information required to be disclosed following legislative requirements or best global practices.
Each Index’s indicator was assessed via monitoring the open sources (websites of public authorities and energy companies, open data and institutional repositories). The aggregate score of each transparency indicator was calculated by the following formula:
Тi = Cav × (Сac + Сrl + Сfr + Сus) × Сin
with Саv, Сac, Сrl, Сfr, Сus, Сin are scores for the availability, accessibility, relevance, frequency, usability and completeness criteria, respectivel
If any information can be obtained only for a fee or upon prior request (Сac = 0), it was considered unavailable (Саv = 0). For all qualitative indicators, Сrl = Сfr = 1 if the information was available (Саv = 1) and accessible (Сac = 1).
Considering the large size of the transparency indicators, they were considered of equal weight. Therefore, the average values were used to develop sub-indexes for the categories, subcategories, and markets
Aggregation Of Scores
To calculate the total Index score, weightings of the Index’s categories were applied:
|2. Natural monopolies||0.20|
|4. Reliability and security||0.05|
|8. Public authorities||0.10|
Interpretation Of Scores
All scores were converted into a 100-point scale as 25 Тi , rounded off and given the following interpretation:
The Index cannot be applied to assess the transparency of:
- The energy sector in real-time, since its calculation requires the processing of large amounts of information for the reporting period (as a rule, the one preceding the period, during which the assessment is delivered);
- All participants of energy markets and/or public authorities; therefore, assessments of certain indicators in the Natural monopolies, Consumption, Reporting and Public authorities categories were delivered on the basis of a representative sample.
«Natural monopolies» category
- Transmission system operators (TSOs): legal entities responsible for the operation, dispatching, maintenance, and development of networks as well as for ensuring their long term capacity to meet reasonable demand for transmission of electricity and gas;
- Distribution system operators (DSOs): legal entities operating in the largest cities and responsible for the safe, reliable, and efficient operation, maintenance and development of distribution systems in electricity and gas.
- Financial and management reporting and Fiscal reporting (partly) subcategories: energy companies ranked among top taxpayers, including entities of public interest as defined by the Directive 2013/34/EU;
- Reports on payments to the government indicator: state-owned and private extractive companies with the largest production of natural gas, oil and gas condensate, and steam coal;
- Information about final beneficiaries indicator: largest joint-stock energy companies selected from the primary sample of companies applied in the Financial and management reporting subcategory, with securities eligible for trading on stock exchanges
«Public authorities» category:
- Public spending (partly), Transparency of public administration subcategories: public authority in charge of energy policy (ministry), national regulatory authority, competition (antitrust) authority.